Category Archives: unix
Three steps to change root password in FreeBSD:
Step 1: Boot in single user mode
As the operating system is starting, it will display the following message:
Hit [Enter] to boot immediately, or any other key for command prompt.
Booting [kernel] in 10 seconds…
You should now press the space bar, and you will see the following message:
Type ‘?’ for a list of commands, or ‘help’ for more detailed help.
# boot -s
to start FreeBSD in single user mode. After the system boots, you should see the statement:
Enter full pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh:
Press the enter key and you will have a # prompt.
Step 2: Mount the filesystems
At the command prompt, issue the mount command. This command will mount all the filesystems listed in your /etc/fstab file.
# mount -t ufs -a
Step 3: Change the root password
Issue the passwd command and you will be prompted to enter a new password for the root account.
Retype new password:_
passwd: updating the database…
Lest’s have a look inside the unix directory structure.
|bin||Essential command binaries|
|boot||Static files of the boot loader|
|etc||Host-specific system configuration|
|lib||Essential shared libraries and kernel modules|
|media||Mount point for removeable media|
|mnt||Mount point for mounting a filesystem temporarily|
|opt||Add-on application software packages|
|sbin||Essential system binaries|
|srv||Data for services provided by this system|
The above is the main folder structure, but there are some of those folders that we should check in deep.
|/dev/null||This virtual folder discards all contents written to it.|
|/usr/bin||Stores the executables that are in /usr.|
|/usr/lib||Required libraries are stored here|
|/var/log||System log files|
|/var/mail||All incoming emails are stored|
|/var/spool||files in which printers are involved as spools, print jobs or other task that have been queued.|